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《反垄断法》大修新增涉互联网相关内容
2020-01-08 00:31   来源:  www.hiltontiles.com   评论:0 点击:

《反垄断法》大修新增涉互联网相关内容实施已满11年的中国《反垄断法》迎来首次“大修”关键节点。1月2日,

  实施已满11年的中国《反垄断法》迎来首次“大修”关键节点。1月2日,国家市场监督管理总局官网公布《反垄断法》修订草案(公开征求意见稿),即日起至1月31日向社会公开征求意见。

China's Anti-monopoly Law, which has been in force for 11 years, ushered in its first \"overhaul\" key node. On January 2, the official website of the State Administration of Market Supervision and Administration published the revised draft of the Anti-monopoly Law (Draft Law on Public Consultation), which will openly solicit opinions from January 31 to January 31.

  值得注意的是,针对互联网新业态的考量被列入其中:在认定经营者具有市场支配地位时,除普遍适用的依据外,征求意见稿特别提及,“认定互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位还应当考虑网络效应、规模经济、锁定效应、掌握和处理相关数据的能力等因素。”

It is worth noting that the consideration of new forms of Internet business is included: in determining that the operator has a dominant market position, in addition to the basis of general application, the draft for soliciting views specifically mentions that \"the determination that the operator of the Internet has a dominant market position should also take into account factors such as network effect, economies of scale, lock-in effect, and the ability to hold and process relevant data.\"

  近年来,互联网行业竞争白热化,以“二选一”为代表的限制交易行为亦日趋常态化,对市场竞争和消费者利益带来影响。其实,在2019年9月开始正式施行的《禁止滥用市场支配地位暂行规定》等三部反垄断法的配套法规中,已经将判断互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位的其他情形进行了明确。

In recent years, the competition of internet industry has become intense, and the restricted trading behavior represented by \"choosing one from two\" is becoming more and more regular, which has an impact on market competition and consumer interests. In fact, in September 2019, the official implementation of the \"interim provisions on the prohibition of abuse of market dominance\" and other anti-monopoly laws, has been judged to have market dominance in the field of the Internet in other circumstances to make clear.

  北京知识产权法研究会竞争法专业委员会秘书长魏士廪在接受北京青年报记者采访时表示,例如美国、欧盟等国家和地区对互联网巨头亚马逊、脸书、谷歌等有反垄断监管,明确指出互联网行业“野蛮生长”的状况已成为过去,现在需重视经营合规问题。

In an interview with the Beijing Youth Daily, Wei Shilin, secretary-general of the Competition Law Committee of the Beijing Intellectual Property Law Institute, said that countries and regions such as the United States and the European Union have anti-monopoly regulations on Internet giants Amazon, Facebook and Google, made it clear that the \"barbaric growth\" of the Internet industry has become a thing of the past, and now it is necessary to pay attention to operational compliance issues.

  魏士廪认为,我国的《反垄断法》2008年颁布实施时,我国的互联网经济发展还未达到今日发展的阶段。11年后,《反垄断法》修改时,新增“认定互联网领域经营者具有市场支配地位还应当考虑网络效应、规模经济、锁定效应、掌握和处理相关数据的能力等因素”等涉及互联网垄断执法的内容。这一条主要是解决法律依据的问题。虽然配套法规有规定,但本身没有上位法的依据,现在在大法里面明确,使执法更有法律依据。但这一条也一定程度上加大了对互联网领域垄断执法的难度,比如如何对网络效应、规模经济等名词进行具体界定等。

Wei Shilin believes that when China's Antimonopoly Law was promulgated and implemented in 2008, China's Internet economy development has not reached the stage of today's development. Eleven years later, when the anti-monopoly law was amended, it added contents involving Internet monopoly law enforcement, such as \"determining that Internet operators have a dominant market position and considering such factors as network effect, economies of scale, lock-in effect, ability to grasp and process relevant data \". This is primarily to address the issue of the legal basis. Although the supporting regulations have provisions, but there is no basis for the upper law itself, now clear in the law, so that the law enforcement has a more legal basis. But it also makes it more difficult to enforce monopoly law in the field of Internet, such as how to define network effect, scale economy and so on.

  《反垄断法》修订草案征求意见稿规定的垄断行为包括:经营者达成垄断协议,经营者滥用市场支配地位,具有或者可能具有排除、限制竞争效果的经营者集中。经营者可以通过公平竞争、自愿联合,依法实施集中,扩大经营规模,提高市场竞争能力。具有市场支配地位的经营者,不得滥用市场支配地位,排除、限制竞争。

《 The monopoly acts stipulated in the draft revised Antimonopoly Law for soliciting opinions include: the conclusion of monopoly agreements by operators, the abuse of market dominance by operators and the concentration of operators who have or may have the effect of excluding or restricting competition. Operators may, through fair competition and voluntary association, implement centralization according to law, expand the scale of operation and improve the market competitiveness. A business operator with a dominant market position shall not abuse its dominant market position and exclude or restrict competition.

  征求意见稿禁止具有竞争关系的经营者达成下列垄断协议:固定或者变更商品价格;限制商品的生产数量或者销售数量;分割销售市场或者采购市场;限制获取新技术、新设备或者限制开发新技术、新产品;联合抵制交易;国务院反垄断执法机构认定的其他垄断协议。

Drafts for soliciting opinions prohibit operators with competitive relations from entering into the following monopoly agreements: fixing or changing commodity prices; restricting the quantity of goods produced or sold; dividing the market for sales or purchasing; restricting access to new technologies and equipment or restricting the development of new technologies and products; boycotting trades; and other monopoly agreements determined by the antitrust enforcement agencies under the State Council.

  但若经营者能够证明所达成的垄断协议属于“为改进技术、研究开发新产品的”,“为提高产品质量、降低成本、增进效率,统一产品规格、标准或者实行专业化分工的”,“因经济不景气,为缓解销售量严重下降或者生产明显过剩的”等情形的,不适用于上述规定。

However, if the operator can prove that the monopoly agreement reached is \"for the improvement of technology, research and development of new products \",\" for the improvement of product quality, cost reduction, efficiency, uniform product specifications, standards or professional division of labor \",\" for the sake of economic depression, to alleviate the serious decline in sales or overproduction \", the above provisions are not applicable.

  征求意见稿禁止具有市场支配地位的经营者从事下列滥用市场支配地位的行为:以不公平的高价销售商品或者以不公平的低价购买商品;没有正当理由,以低于成本的价格销售商品;没有正当理由,拒绝与交易相对人进行交易;没有正当理由,限定交易相对人只能与其进行交易或者只能与其指定的经营者进行交易;没有正当理由搭售商品,或者在交易时附加其他不合理的交易条件等。

Drafts for soliciting views prohibit operators with market dominance from engaging in the following abuses of market dominance: selling goods at unfairly high prices or buying goods at unfairly low prices; selling goods at below-cost prices without justification; refusing to trade with the counterpart of the transaction without justification; limiting the counterpart of the transaction to trade with them or only with the operator designated by them without justification or with other unreasonable trading conditions, etc.

  认定经营者具有市场支配地位,应当依据该经营者在相关市场的市场份额以及相关市场的竞争状况、该经营者控制销售市场或者原材料采购市场的能力、该经营者的财力和技术条件等因素。但有下列情形之一的,可以推定经营者具有市场支配地位:一个经营者在相关市场的市场份额达到二分之一的;两个经营者在相关市场的市场份额合计达到三分之二的;三个经营者在相关市场的市场份额合计达到四分之三的。

The determination that an operator has a dominant market position shall be based on such factors as the market share of the operator in the relevant market and the competitive situation of the relevant market, the ability of the operator to control the market for sales or purchase of raw materials, the financial resources and technical conditions of the operator. However, in any of the following cases, it may be assumed that the operator has a dominant market position: one operator has a market share of one-half in the relevant market; two operators have a market share of two-thirds in the relevant market; and three operators have a market share of three-fourths in the relevant market.

  根据规定,经营者集中达到国务院反垄断执法机构规定的申报标准的,经营者应当事先向国务院反垄断执法机构申报,未申报的不得实施集中。国务院反垄断执法机构可以根据经济发展水平、行业规模等制定和修改申报标准,并及时向社会公布。经营者集中达到申报标准,经营者未依法申报实施集中的,或者经营者集中未达到申报标准,但具有或者可能具有排除、限制竞争效果的,国务院反垄断执法机构应当依法进行调查。

According to the regulations, if a business operator meets the standards for declaration prescribed by the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency under the State Council, the business operator shall report to the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency under the State Council in advance, and the business operator who has not reported shall not be allowed to centralize. The anti-monopoly law enforcement agencies under the State Council may formulate and revise the declaration standards according to the level of economic development and the scale of the trade, etc., and shall promptly publish them to the public. Where the concentration of a business operator reaches the declaration standard, where the concentration of a business operator fails to declare according to law, or the concentration of a business operator fails to meet the declaration standard, but has or may have the effect of excluding or restricting competition, the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency under the State Council shall conduct investigations according to law.

  经营者违反本法规定,达成并实施垄断协议的,由反垄断执法机构责令停止违法行为,没收违法所得,并处上一年度销售额百分之一以上百分之十以下的罚款;对于上一年度没有销售额的经营者或者尚未实施所达成的垄断协议的,可以处五千万元以下的罚款。经营者违反本法规定,滥用市场支配地位的,由反垄断执法机构责令停止违法行为,没收违法所得,并处上一年度销售额百分之一以上百分之十以下的罚款。(蔺丽爽)  

Any business operator who, in violation of the provisions of this Law, enters into or implements a monopoly agreement, shall be ordered by the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency to stop the illegal act, confiscate the illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than one percent but not more than ten percent of the sales volume of the previous year. Any business operator who, in violation of the provisions of this Law, abuses its dominant position in the market, shall be ordered by the anti-monopoly law enforcement agency to stop the illegal act, confiscate its illegal gains and impose a fine of not less than one percent but not more than ten percent of its sales in the previous year. (Lin Lai-shuang)


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