您现在的位置是:主页 > 葡京正规网投app > 青藏高原上找銅礦半導體照明產業化脆弱文物保護頜骨功能重建這些

青藏高原上找銅礦半導體照明產業化脆弱文物保護頜骨功能重建這些
2020-01-11 18:16   来源:  www.hiltontiles.com   评论:0 点击:

青藏高原上找銅礦半導體照明產業化脆弱文物保護頜骨功能重建這些斬獲國家科技大獎的科研成果為國、為民青藏

青藏高原上找铜矿半导体照明产业化脆弱文物保护颌骨功能重建这些斩获国家科技大奖的科研成果为国、为民-新华网

On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau looking for copper mine semiconductor lighting industrialization fragile cultural relics to protect jaw function reconstruction these won the national science and technology award scientific research achievements for the country, for the people-Xinhua.com

  新华网北京1月10日电(记者陈听雨凌纪伟)2019年度国家科学技术奖励大会10日上午在人民大会堂隆重举行。碰撞型斑岩铜矿成矿理论、高光效长寿命半导体照明、考古现场脆弱性文物保护、颌骨缺损功能重建……这些直接面向国家重大需求,致力于服务百姓美好生活的科技成果,斩获2019年国家科学技术奖多项大奖。

On the morning of January 10,2019, the National Science and Technology Awards Congress was held in the Great Hall of the People. Collisional porphyry copper ore-forming theory, high light-effect long-term semiconductor lighting, archaeological site fragile cultural relics protection, jaw defect function reconstruction. These directly oriented to the country's major needs, dedicated to serving the people's good life of scientific and technological achievements, won the 2019 National Science and Technology Award many awards.

  一提到铜,人们会想到青铜时代——一个以使用青铜器为标志的人类物质文化发展阶段。铜是人类最早使用的金属之一,可以用来命名一个时代,足以证明其对人类文明进步影响之深远。

When it comes to copper, one would think of the Bronze Age - a stage of human material and cultural development marked by the use of bronze. Copper, one of the earliest metals used by mankind, can be used to name an era, enough to prove its profound impact on the progress of human civilization.

  如今,人类社会已迈入信息时代,铜依然被广泛应用于机械制造、建筑工业、国防工业等重要领域,是维持社会经济稳健发展的关键性大宗金属之一。

Nowadays, the human society has entered the information age, copper is still widely used in machinery manufacturing, construction industry, defense industry and other important fields, is one of the key bulk metals to maintain the steady development of social economy.

  铜如此重要,我国地大物博,铜资源是不是足以高枕无忧了?Nonono,事实上,我国的铜资源保有储量极大短缺!科学家们日以继夜地找矿、勘查,寻求突破。

Copper is so important, China's vast resources, copper is not enough to rest? Nonono, in fact, there is a great shortage of copper reserves in our country! Scientists are searching for mines, surveying and making breakthroughs day and night.

  找矿勘查的技术实践依靠什么?靠成矿理论。目前全球铜主要来自于一种被称为“斑岩型”的铜矿床类型。国际矿床学界研究认为,斑岩铜矿主要产于岩浆弧环境,其形成与大洋俯冲有关,由此建立起经典的斑岩铜矿成矿理论。

What does the technical practice of prospecting rely on? On metallogenic theory. Currently, the world's copper comes mainly from a type of copper bed known as porphyry. According to the research of international ore deposit, porphyry copper deposit is mainly produced in magmatic arc environment, and its formation is related to oceanic subduction.

  那么问题来了,我国广大地区、特别是西藏地区等缺乏大洋俯冲环境的斑岩铜矿床成因该如何解释呢?国家自然科学奖二等奖获奖项目“碰撞型斑岩铜矿成矿理论”对此做出了理论创新。

Then, how to explain the origin of porphyry copper deposits lacking oceanic subduction environment, especially in Tibet? The second prize winning project of the National Natural Science Award,\" collision-type porphyry copper ore-forming theory \", made a theoretical innovation to this.

  中国科学院院士、中国地质科学院地质科学研究所研究员侯增谦研究团队潜心研究,在青藏高原这一最年轻、最典型的大陆碰撞造山带一扎就是十余年,取得了一系列重大突破,最终建立了一套完整、系统的碰撞斑岩铜矿成矿理论。该理论回答了在缺少活动大洋俯冲的碰撞环境下,斑岩铜矿特征及形成机制的问题,大幅度发展和完善了经典斑岩铜矿理论,极大拓宽了全球斑岩铜矿的勘查区域。

Hou zengqian, academician of the chinese academy of sciences and researcher of the institute of geological sciences of the chinese academy of geological sciences, has made a series of major breakthroughs in the youngest and most typical continental collision orogenic belt of the qinghai-tibet plateau for more than ten years. The theory answers the problem of the characteristics and formation mechanism of porphyry copper in the collision environment of lack of active ocean subduction, develops and consummates the classical porphyry copper theory, and widens the exploration area of global porphyry copper mine greatly.

  “事实上,大陆板块碰撞的范围要比大洋俯冲的范围大很多。我们以国家重大需求为牵引,突破瓶颈,通过理论创新,指导技术实践,短时间内就在青藏高原发现了十多个铜矿。”侯增谦说。

  然而,白炽灯等传统照明光源都存在电光转换效率低的问题。如果能在照明领域发展出更高光效的光源,将会节省更多能源,进而对环境保护、可持续发展作出巨大贡献。LED具有高光效、长寿命的特点,以LED为核心器件的半导体照明已成为继白炽灯之后的第二次照明革命。

However, the traditional lighting sources such as incandescent lamps have the problem of low efficiency of electro-optic conversion. If the light source with higher light efficiency can be developed in the field of lighting, it will save more energy and make a great contribution to environmental protection and sustainable development. LED has the characteristics of high light efficiency and long life, and semiconductor lighting with LED as the core device has become the second lighting revolution after incandescent lamp.

  国家科技进步奖一等奖获奖项目“高光效长寿命半导体照明关键技术与产业化”历时十余年联合技术创新,形成具有自主知识产权的高光效、长寿命半导体照明成套技术,关键指标达国际领先水平。项目成果实现大规模产业化推广,在北京奥运会、十城万盏示范工程等重大工程实现示范应用。

The national science and technology progress award first prize award project \"high light effect long life semiconductor lighting key technology and industrialization\" lasted for more than ten years joint technological innovation, formed the high light efficiency, long life semiconductor lighting complete set technology with independent intellectual property rights, the key index reaches the international leading level. The achievements of the project have been popularized on a large scale, and the demonstration application has been realized in major projects such as the Beijing Olympic Games and ten thousand demonstration projects in the city.

  “LED节能效果显著,其电光转换效率是荧光灯的5倍,白炽灯的20倍。”项目主要完成人、中国科学院半导体研究所研究员李晋闽介绍说,目前我国已有近50%的传统光源被LED产品所取代,每年累计实现节电约2800亿度,相当于3个三峡水利工程的发电量,超过澳大利亚全年用电量。

“LEDs have a remarkable energy-saving effect, with five times more electro-optic conversion efficiency and 20 times more incandescent. Nearly 50 percent of China's traditional light sources have been replaced by LED products, saving about 280 billion degrees of electricity a year, equivalent to three Three Gorges projects, surpassing the nation's annual electricity consumption, said Li Jinmin, a researcher at the Institute of Semiconductor Research at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  随着半导体照明技术与产业的发展,新技术与新业态层出不穷。例如,深紫外LED可广泛应用于水净化、空气净化、生物探测、医疗等民用领域。半导体照明将在健康照明、智慧照明以及农业、医疗、通讯等超越照明的技术领域实现更为广泛的应用。

With the development of semiconductor lighting technology and industry, new technologies and new forms emerge in endlessly. For example, deep ultraviolet LED can be widely used in water purification, air purification, biological detection, medical treatment and other civilian fields. Semiconductor lighting will be more widely used in health lighting, smart lighting and technology beyond lighting in agriculture, medicine and communications.

  薄荷能散发出一种清爽怡人的味道,这是因为其中包含一种叫薄荷醇的物质。但令人意想不到的是,科学家们将无害的薄荷醇及其衍生物用于考古后,竟捧回国家科技大奖。

Mint gives off a refreshing and pleasant taste because it contains a substance called menthol. But surprisingly, scientists have won back the National Science and Technology Awards after using harmless menthol and its derivatives for archaeology.

  文物不可再生,是珍贵的历史实物资源,珍贵文物的缺失可能会淹没一段历史。考古发掘现场出土的脆弱性文物与遗迹,常因发掘时环境突变而损毁。因此研发适合考古发掘现场脆弱遗迹应急保护的技术,是国内外文化遗产保护科技工作者面临的难题。

Cultural relics are not renewable, are precious historical physical resources, the lack of precious cultural relics may drown a period of history. The fragile cultural relics and remains unearthed from the archaeological excavation site are often damaged by sudden environmental changes in the excavation. Therefore, it is a difficult problem for science and technology workers to research and develop the technology suitable for the protection of fragile relics in archaeological excavations.

  国家科技进步奖二等奖获奖项目“考古现场脆弱性文物临时固型提取及其保护技术”系统研究了薄荷醇加固提取文物的有效性、安全性以及可控去除性,制定了临时固型及操作规范;研发出了考古发掘现场脆弱遗迹临时保存的微环境控制装置。

The second prize-winning project of the national science and technology progress award \"archaeological site fragile cultural relics temporary solid extraction and its protection technology\" has systematically studied the effectiveness, safety and controllable removal of the menthol reinforced and extracted cultural relics, formulated the temporary solid type and operation standard, and developed a micro-environment control device for the temporary preservation of the fragile remains of the archaeological excavation site.

  项目主要完成人、上海大学教授罗宏杰介绍说,这项技术不但能有效减缓、甚至避免出土环境突变对文物带来的毁灭性作用,而且能临时提高文物的力学强度,以保证文物的发掘提取和安全运输。

Luo hongjie, a professor at shanghai university who has completed the project, said the technology cannot only effectively slow down and even avoid the devastating effects of sudden changes in the unearthed environment on cultural relics, but also temporarily increase the mechanical strength of cultural relics to ensure the excavation and safe transportation of cultural relics.

  据悉,该项目是具有中国自主知识产权的开创性成果,已推广应用到秦始皇兵马俑遗址、海昏侯墓等65处重要考古发掘工地,抢救了2000多件脆弱文物和珍稀化石。

It is reported that the project is a pioneering achievement with independent intellectual property rights in China, and has been popularized and applied to 65 important archaeological excavation sites such as Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Warriors and Terracotta Warriors site, Hai faint Hou tomb, and more than 2,000 fragile cultural relics and rare fossils have been rescued.

  “戴着大口罩,不肯走出家门……颌骨缺损的病人是很痛苦的,他们中的很多人只有在最终见到医生的时候才敢摘掉口罩。”上海交通大学医学院附属第九人民医院主任医师张陈平说。

“wears a large mask and won't come out of the house... Patients with jaw defects are miserable, and many of them only take off their masks when they finally see a doctor. Zhang Chenping, chief physician of the Ninth People's Hospital affiliated to the Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University, said.

  肿瘤、创伤、炎症等病因可导致颌骨缺损,这种疾病严重影响病人的咀嚼、吞咽、呼吸等生理功能,对病人的心理造成创伤,降低生存质量、甚至危及生命。颌骨修复重建手术难度大,如何实现真正意义上的功能重建是世界性难题。

Cancer, trauma, inflammation and other causes can lead to jaw defects, this disease seriously affects the patient's chewing, swallowing, breathing and other physiological functions, causing trauma to the patient's psychology, reducing the quality of life, and even endangering life. The operation of jaw repair and reconstruction is very difficult. How to realize the real function reconstruction is a worldwide problem.

  国家科技进步奖二等奖获奖项目“颌骨缺损功能重建的技术创新与推广应用”项目组历经了20余年的研究攻关,率先提出了“功能导向的颌骨重建”理论,创建关键技术体系并推广应用。(注:全称与简称均可,但全文中应保持一致,此处参前文改)

After more than 20 years of research, the national science and technology progress award-winning project \"innovation and popularization and application of jaw defect reconstruction\" project team first put forward the theory of \"functional-oriented jaw reconstruction \", create the key technology system and popularize the application. (Note: Full name and short name are available, but the full text should be consistent.)

  项目组通过研究,创新性地使用小腿腓骨重建颌骨,平均手术时间缩短2小时以上,减少患者多次手术的创伤,缩短治疗周期,降低医疗费用,使数千例患者恢复了咀嚼、吞咽等生理功能。医者医病也医心,经过治疗,解决了颌骨畸形患者的自闭自卑心理,使患者的家庭重回稳定,也帮助患者重燃勇气走出家门,融入社会。

Through the research, the project team innovatively used the calf fibula to rebuild the jaw, the average operation time was shortened by more than 2 hours, the trauma of the patient's multiple operations was reduced, the treatment cycle was shortened, and the medical cost was reduced, so that thousands of patients were restored to physiological functions such as chewing and swallowing. The doctor also cured the heart, after treatment, solved the autistic inferiority complex of the jaw deformity patient, made the patient's family return to stability, and also helped the patient rekindle the courage to go out of the house and integrate into the society.

  “颌骨重建手术精细度很高,技术难度大,从前很难推广,难以更广泛地帮助到更多的患者。”项目主要完成人张陈平介绍,为解决这一问题,项目组建立了数字外科的“一站式”新平台,打破国际技术壁垒,解决了软件碎片化及不兼容的难题,显著降低操作误差,提高手术安全性。与此同时,通过举办学术会议及国家级学习班等多种形式在全国推广,项目组培养了大量颌骨重建专科医师。

“Jaw reconstruction surgery is highly sophisticated and technically difficult. It used to be difficult to promote and help more patients. The project mainly completed the introduction of Zhang Chenping, to solve this problem, the project team set up a "one-stop" new platform for digital surgery, break the international technical barriers, solve the problem of software fragmentation and incompatibilities, significantly reduce the operation error and improve the safety of surgery. At the same time, by organizing academic conferences and state-level classes and other forms of promotion in the country, the project team trained a large number of jaw reconstruction specialists.

  “为病人解除疾苦,是医生的使命;科技创新,要更好地服务于人民的美好生活。”张陈平说,我们希望全国颌骨缺损的病患能够有术可医,并对民众的医学知识普及与治疗水平的认识产生积极影响。

“It is the doctor's mission to relieve the sufferings of the sick; technological innovation should better serve the good life of the people. 'We hope that patients with jaw defects across the country can have a cure and have a positive impact on the popularization of medical knowledge and the level of treatment,' Mr. Chen said.


相关热词搜索:

上一篇:財政部嚴懲重罰會計造假規范注會行業發展
下一篇:没有了

分享到: